Author: Carter McLellen – Date: January 9, 2021 – Updated: April 8, 2021 |
- 1919-1961: Raised a Roman Catholic
- 1961-1978: Adventure and Coups
- 1979-2001: Exposure and Protection
- Connections review
“It seems that a number of (criminal) facts in Walloon-Brabant are directly linked to certain financial and political interests…”
-(March 18, 1985, BOB office Gerard Bihay of the Wavers Gendarmerie, summary created for examining magistrate Schlicker)
There may have never been a more controversial and shady Belgian politician than Paul Vanden Boeynants. A two time Prime Minister and Roman Catholic, he has been accused of things as tax evasion, drug trafficking, to fomenting a fascist underground and plotting to destabilize Belgium and even child abuse and murder. All but the tax evasion charges ever brought VdB to trial.
1919-1961: Raised a Roman Catholic
Toward the end of the 1910s, Paul Emile François Henri Vanden Boeynants was born in Forest, Belgium, on May 22, 1919. No information is readily available about VdB’s parents and family, but, his father’s name was Henri Vanden Boeynants and his mother’s Jeanne Lenssens. VdB’s parents and family were more than likely Roman Catholics and would have raised him with Catholicism. Nothing is really known by this author about the first twenty years of the life of Vanden Boeynants. However, it has been reported that he studied, also probably played soccer, from 1926 and into the 1930s at the Saint-Michel College, set up by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and located in Etterbeek, Brussels, Belgium. Sense his father and mother were butchers from Mechelen, after Saint-Michel Paul went into the business of his parents, continuing his studies as an apprentice butcher, first with is father and then in Antwerp. He also played soccer at the Royal Union Saint-Gilloise, but gave it up after a knee injury.
Around this time, in the early days, Vanden Boeynants was a strong supporter of Rex, which was a Catholic fascist movement that collaborated with the Nazis during WWII. It was founded by the Jesuit educated Leon Degrelle and was active in Belgium since 1935, through the Nazi invasion of Belgium in May 1940, until it was banned after Belgium was liberated in September 1944. In 1940, Vanden Boeynants was taken prisoner in East Prussia following the 18-day campaign. About two years after, in 1942, he was released. Afterward, he then married Lucienne Deurinck, a daughter of a butcher. However, after WWII, many Rexists were imprisoned or executed for their role in Nazi collaboration. Its leader Degrelle took refuge in Francoist Spain. So, Vanden Boeynants would have been in his early twenties during Nazi occupation. Vanden Boeynants was strongly anti-communist and in addition to his strong support of Rex, he also flirted with other Nazi and fascist movements, which brought about a conflict with his father. After WWII, Vanden Boeynants would set up his own business in the meat industry, but also jump into the circles of concrete barons as Charly de Pauw and Ado Blaton. Although Vanden Boeynants did not participate in Rexist collaboration with the Nazis, in the later 1940s, Vanden Boeynants sought contact with the Flemish-nationalists, a movement still heavily persecuted at the time for having collaborated with the Nazis.
Vanden Boeynants was 29 years old when he decided to enter politics. He joined the Parti Social Chretiens (PSC), the successor of the Catholic Party, in 1948. The same year, following months after massive intervention by the CIA to ward off an electoral victory by the Socialist-Communist Popular Democratic Front in the April 1948 elections, Vanden Boeynants traveled in November to Rome, Italy, to attend the second conference of the Union of European Federalists (UEF), where he was one of five Belgian representatives. The UEF was the most prominent member of Jozef Retinger’s European Movement. Through Paul Vanden Boeynants’ involvement in the UEF, he made contact with a man named Pierre de Bonvoisin, soon to be Baron and director of the Societe Generale de Belgique (SGdB). Pierre was the treasurer of the UEF and would be involved in several early meetings of the Bilderberg Group, which was founded by Jozef Retinger in the early 1950s. Pierre was the son-in-law of Alexandre Galopin, a director of the SGdB, who had been assassinated by a Nazi group in 1944 after reportedly acquiring a list of certain Nazi collaborators. Pierre’s son Benoît de Bonvoisin would soon meet Vanden Boeynants after Benoît graduated from the Catholic University of Louvain.
Having joined the PSC and gotten involved with other groups as the UEF, Vanden Boeynants became a member of the Belgian Parliament in 1949. In the same year, Vanden Boeynants, together with intelligence-connected journalist Jo Gerard, set up the Comite for the Revival of the PSC, which turned out to be successful. In the late 1940s, and in the early 1950s, Vanden Boeynants had begun a Red Scare campaign, which mirrored the one of Senator Joseph McCarthy in the USA. By 1949, he also joined the Commission of Economic Affairs and Middle-class of Parliament. The following year, in 1950, he became a member of the Commission of the Parliament. At the time there was a major debate going around about the whether or not King Leopold III should remain King for having been too buddy-buddy with Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. Vanden Boeynants made it clear that he was a staunch monarchist and supporter of Leopold III. However, eventually Leopold III decided to abdicate the throne in favor of his son Baudouin in 1951. On August 11, 1950, during Baudouin’s constitutional oath as regent before the united Chambers of the Belgian Parliament, someone shouted “Vive la Republique!”, which has usually been attributed to a long time popular Communist politician named Julien Lahaut, but may have been someone sitting next to him. Reportedly, this event caused Paul Vanden Boeynants to go berserk and had to be stopped from physically attacking the communist party at the inauguration. A week later, two unknown assassins shot Lahaut in front of his home. It has been reported that one of the assassins was a certain “Adolphe”, who would become part of the Belgian Stay-Behind network of SDRA8. In Italy the Stay-Behind network was called Gladio, which began operations in 1956 under NATO (not to mention the CIA). It is known that Vanden Boeynants became a big supporter of NATO and was certainly interested in European integration as we saw with his involvement with the UEF. VdB was also interested in neutralizing the labor wing within the PSC, the reason for which he founded the Mouvement des Independants et des Cadres (MIC), in 1955. About three years after VdB set up the MIC, he became the Minister of the Middle-Classes in 1958, a position he held until 1961.
In the late 1950s to early 1960s period, Vanden Boeynants had called upon the up and coming Baron Benoit de Bonvoisin, the son of Pierre, to make realignments to the PSC. VdB also gave a monopoly on tobacco-free stores, at the new airport of Zaventem, to his good friend Aldo Vastapane. At some point, Vanden Boeynants had become a director at the Expo 58, which surprised King Baudouin because of his young age. It turn out that de Bonvoisin and Vastapane, including VdB and the King Baudouin, would all later be accused of child abuse. However, as for Vanden Boeynants, he would be accused by victim-witness X3 of having already been involved in a horrendous child abuse and murder network involving Belgian royalty between the 1950s and early 1960s. X3 recognized Paul Vanden Boeynants (Polo) and Charly De Pauw, including Belgian royals as Prince Charles of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, King Baudouin and King Albert II, also possibly Willy Claes and a doctor Vanden Eynde among the same roughly 50 individuals present at events which took place at a certain house/mansion.
“The car stopped on a parterre before the house. [It] was surrounded by a park. Two supervisors were present: Ralf and Walter. The children were taken to a tower made of natural stone and with a wooden door… an underground [corridor] left from the turret toward the cellars… without light… going downward. In the cellars there were cells where the children were locked up, awaiting their turn. There were also some cells for the dogs (dobermans). The passageway gave way to a room of spectacle. In the tower: dead children’s bodies in various stages of decomposition (sometimes dismembered and/or missing body parts) and carcasses of dogs. Spectators: always the same but difficult to identify – about fifty. She recognized the regent Charles, King Baudouin and King Albert, and two others that she calls Charly [De Pauw] and Polo [Paul Vanden Boeynants]. She thinks to have recognized Willy Claes and doctor Vanden Eynde. The dogs listen to Ralf and Walter. The addicted dogs are excited. Spectacles = orgies, putting to death children and dogs. The spectacle room has a strong odor of excrements of dogs. Dogs can roam free in the garden… Gilles (12 years old??) was castrated by Polo. The other children have to drink the blood… Girls are slashed with razor blades. The lips of the vagina of X3 have partially been cut and were given to eat to the dogs… A girl’s [large] vulva was cut into slices and fed to the dogs…”
-(PV 151.829, June 2, 1997, X-dossiers summary of X3’s testimony)
X3 also claimed that at some point Charly De Pauw and Paul Vanden Boeynants organized a hunt on children:
“A hunt is prepared by Charly and Polo. Present: Charles- Ferdinand Nothomb. This is at another place. Big white house with [at least one additional floor] and stables. The park has a round basin and a fountain coming out of a statue. The children were released naked and when caught, they were raped. The hunt ended with tortures in the spectacle room… Virginity of a girl of 7-9 years taken by a dog. A product that excited [the dog] was placed on the girl’s vagina. The other children had to lick the blood… A baby devoured by the dogs… Childbirth by a teenager through a caesarean section. Baby pulled out of the stomach and given to the dogs by Polo [Paul Vanden Boeynants]. She saw the dismembered mother again in the exposition of the dead… She has to eat the human flesh cut from the bodies. She has to eat pieces of children (fingers) served in gelatin. Good taste – slightly sugary. It provoked an enormous sensation of hunger and thirst. Drinking blood relieved the sensation of thirst… She speaks of another murder that she committed on a girl of 3-5 years under the threat that it would be her brother who would be killed. She opened up the girl from the vagina to the breastbone with a knife. She gave the internal organs to the dog. Someone cut off the head. The child was devoured by the dogs… Murder of a young teenage woman who was opened up by Vanden Eynde… The baby shouted in the mother’s stomach. She resewed the stomach with the baby inside… She also has to eat from the excrements of dogs… She has to cut off the vulva of a female dog named Rita.“
-(PV 151.829, June 2, 1997 X-dossiers summary of X3’s testimony)
These are horrific events and they are certainly hard to believe, without much of any corroboration, except for similar names accused and similar forms of abuse described by other witnesses. However, it is that little bit of corroboration that should not allow for any complete discounting of X3’s testimony. She accused him of being a butcher of children and murderer of a baby in at least once case. Paul Vanden Boeynants once said:
“The worst moment during my career was the period of the strikes ’60-’61. Then I thought we had come to the end of normal political history and that we had entered back into adventure.”
1961-1978: Adventure and Coups
Having been a member for over a decade of the Parti Sociel Chretiens, since 1948, a member of Parliament since 1949, Vanden Boeynants finally became the chairman of the PSC/CVP alliance in 1961, succeeding Theo Lefevre. Reportedly, it was in the early 1960s that Vanden Boeynants decided to call upon Baron Benoit de Bonvoisin, newly graduated in philosophy from the Catholic University in Louvain and son of Baron Pierre, to help make realignments to the PSC. Having played a leading role in the PSC/CVP alliance as Chairman for around five years, Vanden Boeynants became the Prime Minister of Belgium in 1966, after his role as PSC Chairman ended. Under Vanden Boeynants, Belgium joined NATO, which settled its political HQ in Belgium, and joined the European Economic Community (EEC), which would later become the European Union (EU), which in turn is HQed in Brussels, Belgium. These moves certainly make sense with VdB’s background in the UEF. By 1967-1968, the “Linguistic Wars” took place, resulting in the fall of Vanden Boeynants’ government and the split of the Catholic University of Louvain/Leuven on linguistic lines. Although his government fell from power, he was succeeded by then CVP member Gaston Eyskens, who remained Prime Minister until 1971, his second time in the office. In 1969, Vanden Boeynants was appointed by King Baudouin to the honorary title of Minister of State.
The year of 1969 was a very crucial one for what has been called the “Cercle complex”. Several key Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) were established, which involved influential men in their private capacities, who were also often members of, or connected to, Le Cercle. It has been suspected, based on a photo, that Baron de Bonvoisin attended Le Cercle as far back as 1968, where he apparently can be seen meeting with David Rockefeller and Antoine Pinay, although de Bonvoisin certainly attended once in 1982. It was on April 3, 1969, that the Cercle des Nations was set up by Paul Vankerkhoven, Paul Vanden Boeynants, Baron de Bonvoisin and Florimond Damman, all of whom would appear in an Opus Dei dossier. All four of these men later on became members of the Academie Europeene des Sciences Politique (AESP), which was founded in January 1969. Another organization set up in 1961 was the Mouvement pour l’Union de l’Europe (MAUE), which was the Belgian branch of the Paneuropa Union (PEU). Many of these organizations involved members with links to Opus Dei, an organization that was active in Belgium going back to at the latest 1965. At some point, it is highly suspected that Vanden Boeynants and de Bonvoisin became members of Opus Dei, including others close to them.
By 1969, a newer victim-witness has come forward claiming she was seemingly targeted by a Countess (living in Antwerp) and then groomed, sexualized, abused and then taken by a couple to a castle, when she was six years old. A large man greeted them, but he was upset that the pimps had only brought three girls and no boys. Other aristocrats were present and horrible, humiliating, things were done to Anneke. At one point, Anneke was led down a cellar where she was shown a dead body of a teenage girl, as a warning that she would end up dead if she spoke out about the Network. Anneke was taken by the couple to orgies where child abuse took place, but, eventually her own mother began taking her to these places. Even though Anneke still went to school, if she was absent there was always a doctor to write a note. According to Anneke it was clear that Vanden Boeynants and his associates were running everything. It appears that around the 1969-1970 period, Anneke was sent in a car with a seven year old boy and driven by two handlers to Switzerland. After arrival, they were led into a long underground tunnel with burning torches on the walls. At the end of the tunnel they met with other handlers. Then an American that spoke French came out and decided that the boy would be sacrificed. This was described by Anneke, which was extremely traumatic for her, as a Satanic Ritual sacrifice. It took place in a large underground area with symbols on the floor, burning fires, an alter, men dressed in black robes and hoods. A Belgian lawyer and eventual Baron was present and had the role of executioner. That Belgian was close to Vanden Boeynants, who had apparently sent Anneke and the boy as a gift to the American. After a precarious event this unnamed American thought Anneke was sophisticated and decided to have her flown to the United States in July. This American took her with him to his properties and showed her off to some of his friends. Eventually he began rejecting her, having her sent back to Switzerland. It appears that it was Vanden Boeynants himself who picked her up in Switzerland and then drove her to Germany. She was taken to a facility, which was sort of mind control, training and eugenics clinic. Anneke was strapped down, tested, injected and brainwashed. At one point, it appears that VDB yelled in her ear that she should commit suicide if the American rejects her. Anneke was trained to pick up on facial features that would indicate certain sexual preferences. The main doctor at the facility was a Nazi, who was funded by the American. Most unnerving is that Anneke was the oldest child there, most were toddlers and babies. Afterwards, Anneke would be taken back to Germany to service VIPs. Eventually, Anneke would meet the American in Germany, where he would reject her for the last time. Despite this, Anneke had a reputation in the Network and was used by Vanden Boeynants to service VIPs.
The Cercle des Nations started out with about 80 members, who were generally right-wing, royalist, anti-communist, pro-NATO, pro-European integration and fascist. In April 1970, the Cercle des Nations held a reception in honor of the ruling Greek colonels, who had staged a coup against the government of Panagiotis Kanellopoulos in 1967. By 1971, Vanden Boeynants, with funding from de Bonvoisin, set up Nouvel Europe Magazine (NEM). The magazine was published by CIDEP, a company owned by de Bonvoisin. In May 1971, after Emile Lecerf became editor, the magazine published an articles with the title The technique for an ideal coup d’etat. In the same month, NEM moved to a premises owned by de Bonvoisin. Over the year, a number of NEM-clubs began to be organized where fascist militants could meet each other and plot a coup. In 1972, Vanden Boeynants, de Bonvoisin and Vankerkhoven founded the Centre Politique des Independents et des Cadres Chretiens (CEPIC), a clandestine think tank, which represented a continuation of the MIC and a renewed effort to neutralize the leftist (pro-labour) wing within the PSC. In the same year as the CEPIC’s founding, Vanden Boeynants became the Minister of National Defense, a position he held under Prime Ministers Edmond Leburton and Leo Tindemans through the 1970s. Throughout this time, Baron de Bonvoisin and Nicolas de Kerchove were personal advisors to Vanden Boeynants and helped to run the CEPIC. In 1972, it has been alleged that planning began to destabilize Belgium in order to bring in a stronger government that could more effectively counter “KGB subversion” of labor unions and left-wing political parities.
In the 1972-’73 period, Anneke Lucas first met Patrick Haemers at an orgy in a castle near Brussels. Patrick Haemers was brought there by his father Achille Haemers, who were trying to get close to the elites. Patrick was interested in Anneke, so he walked up to Vanden Boeynants and asked for. Patrick initially didn’t touch her for six months. He even would try to protect her. Patrick was very interested in learning about Vanden Boeynants and the Network. Yet, this is not the only time Vanden Boeynants, has been accused of child abuse network involvement in this time period. According to the testimony of victim-witness X1 (Regina Louf), one of her earliest abusers, since the age of two, was Paul Vanden Boeynants, who became Minister of Defense in 1972. He was a client of Madame Cecile Beernaert’s Sunny Corner hotel-villa, located in Knokke, by 1972 at the latest. In Regina’s book, she speaks of Vanden Boeynants as “Pépère”:
“Disobedience carried a big sentence. I learned this when I was only three years old. I had refused to undress in front of a man – the feeling of shame to expose myself was already great then – and I got a lesson in psychological warfare. Not me but an older girl, seven or eight years old, got tortured with a razorblade. Her arms, legs, her belly, everything got slashed. Pépère (little daddy), one of my earliest abusers, rubbed my face in her blood and yelled at me:
“This is your fault! This is what happens when you are bad and disobedient. Ask Martine for forgiveness!”
I stammered out a few words, in between my tears, terrified by the view of all that blood, shaken by the desperate cries of the girl. He lashed out at Martine, kicked her, until I – three years old and hardly being able to produce full sentences – asked for forgiveness. And at least I knew what I had done wrong then.”
-(Regina’s Story, pages 7-8)
Another scenario described by X1 at Madame Cecile’s where she was blindfolded and pushed on here knees goes is as follows:
“…I heard voices in the lounge and I could hear them come towards the room. In submission I stayed where I was when the people whom these voices belonged to came in, and I recognized the voice of Pépère, I smelled his cigar. “Lève-toi” (get up) and so I did. I didn’t understand French, but knew the orders. I spread my little legs, held my arm up in the air, because being blindfolded went with being tied up. This too I had learned at a young age… [she is grabbed and men were bringing something in the room] It appeared to be a little table with a glass top. They put the table against the backside of the bed. Pépère pushed me back on my knees, pushed my little face against the table-leaf, which felt cold, and other hands tied my left and right wrists to the legs of the bed.”
-(Regina’s Story, page 9)
She was then touched all over the place and photographs were taken. Then Tony Van Den Bogaert, who probably had known Madame Cecile for sometime brought in dogs, which raped Regina. This was also photographed.
Another thing Regina witnessed during her time in Knokke and after, were hunts on children. Regina claimed that Paul Vanden Boeynants had originally brought up the idea of a real hunt:
“It was Pépère who had brought up the idea of a real hunt. He liked to go hunting lions, wildebeests and zebras in South Africa. After a sex party he mentioned that white hunters sometimes hunted young blacks too. He had experienced this kind of hunts as the ultimate kick and wanted to try this out in Belgium with the girls they raped. I was sitting next to him when he spoke about it but I didn’t immediately realise that he was serious. It was only after I had seen the first child being killed that I knew that a new phase had started in the way they treated us. But again, to whom could I talk about it? Even today people want to lock me up in a mental institution for saying that these hunts were damn real.”
It has been reported that Vanden Boeynants, de Bonvoisin, Army Major Jean-Marie Bougerol and Count Arnould de Briery were involved in “l’Ordre Blue”, the codename for an aborted 1973 coup plot. The year of 1973 was also when fascists of the NEM clubs founded their own paramilitary group called the Front de la Jeunesse (FJ), which became headed by Francis Dossogne, a paid advisor to de Bonvoisin. FJ would receive financed by de Bonvoisin through his company PDG and the CEPIC. Essentially the FJ was de Bonvoisin private militia. This especially makes sense, because in 1974, Vanden Boeynants and de Bonvoisin set up the Public Information Office (PIO), of which de Bonvoisin insured that Major Bougerol was appointed as head and that Bougerol gave orders to Dossogne. Equally suspicious was Bougerol’s membership of SDRA8, Belgium’s stay-behind network. Additionally, the CEPIC, PIO’s civilian section, PDG and at some point the MAUE were all located in the same two connected buildings. De Bonvoisin and de Kerchove were Vanden Boeynants channel to the PIO, the former managing the daily operations, the latter managing the political side. The PIO was essentially a private/military intelligence organization, but also a propaganda outlet with Inforep and counter-subversion/intelligence unit. It had a military and civilian front, attempting to infiltrate key organizations that would benefit them by pushing their views was a key goal of the PIO, Bougerol also developed his own action group of correspondents called the Miller network.
In March 1974, Anneke Lucas was to be murdered, seemingly the “end circuit”. She was taken to the house of Paul Vanden Boeynants and delivered to Jean-Michel Nihoul by Patrick Haemers. Nihoul was responsible for the torture and murder of Anneke. The event was to take place in a room with a butcher block with straps, stained with blood. Nihoul brought in other children, who were to participate in the torture of Anneke, who ended up being badly mutilated and cut up. Although Patrick was going to allow this to happen, he ended up changing his mind and basically selling himself to Vanden Boeynants, in exchange for the preservation of Anneke’s life. Suddenly, the Belgian lawyer stepped in and said: “It’s over.” In protest Nihoul shouted that she would give them trouble, but Anneke was let go and released to Patrick. However, Patrick took her to an office of VDB, he stated that the tradition in the Network for someone to leave was to make them commit a murder of a child. So Patrick took her to a villa outside Brussels where the regular Belgians and Frenchmen in the Network were present. Then, with the help of Patrick, Anneke was forced to killed an 8-9 year old girl. Only then was she allowed to go, which Patrick Haemers helped with.
From the period of 1972 to 1975, then Minister of Defense Vanden Boeynants and General Leon Francois set up the National Bureau for Drugs (NBD) within the Gendarmerie, with support from the CIA. General Francois became the initial head and the CIA provided training for the NBD. Additionally, the CIA would delivered many, often questionable, informants in exchange for intelligence about leftists and other dissent groups given to the CIA chief in Belgium by Francois. The NBD was initially headquartered in a gendarmerie barrack. As NBD head, Francois was advised by Frank Eaton and James Guy, both of whom were associated with the USA’s DEA. Gendarmes were always warning Francois to be careful and to watch out for magistrates. The NBD was working undercover in the criminal milieu, which is definitely a sketchy/sticky area. The NBD felt the need to move from a Gendarme barrack to a house rented somewhere in Brussels. A former Diana Group co-founder said that some officers within the BOB knew well what Francois was really up to. As a result, the NBD relocating out of the Gendarme barrack, Col. Jan Hassaert reportedly said:
“Now everything is messed up. They are out of sight. … We don’t play along [if they want something from us].”
On another front, in the 1974-1975 period, close Vanden Boeynants righthand man Baron de Bonvoisin, Lecerf and Baron Albert Lambert founded the Parti des Forces Nouvelles (PFN), which was essentially the political front of the Front de la Jeunesse. The PFN held its first congress at CEPIC headquarters, where the rest of the key groups as PIO, PDG, etc. were located. The connection to FJ is very interesting. Because the year 1975 is when Martial Lekeu would later indicate that clandestine organizations within the Front de la Jeunesse, known as Group G and Group M, were plotting a coup. Group G was to work toward infiltrating the Gendarmerie, while Group M worked in infiltrating groups favorable to the military, where they would push their point of view. The following year, in 1976, the child hunts that X1 talked about were expanded from Knokke to two castles located East of Namur and North of Faulx-les-Tombes. It has been suspected that private militias like the Front de la Jeunesse or maybe the Diana Group and Group G, would provide security and transportation of victims for these events.
Meanwhile, with coup plots going on in Belgium, Vanden Boeynants and de Bonvoisin, along with his concrete baron friends and led by then Prince Albert II, were involved with a major deal with the NATO trained Saudi National Guard, in 1976. The deal involved Eurosystem Hospitalier and was explained in the last article in de Bonvoisin:
“On June 14, 1976, Eurosystem Hospitalier, the most prominent participant of Eurosystem Health Consortium (EHC), signed a major contract worth 1 billion euros with Saudi Prince Abd Khaled, leader of the NATO-trained Saudi national guard, to build and exploit two military hospitals in Jeddah and Riadh, in Saudi Arabia, with an entire village surrounding them, for the NATO-trained Saudi National Guard. This deal came as a result of a trade mission led by then Prince Albert II in Saudi Arabia in October 1975. Baron de Bonvoisin [and those associated with his PDG company] reportedly was involved in this deal, together with Paul Vanden Boeynants, Roger Boas, Charly De Pauw, Ado Blaton and others. A number of dossiers would be developed related to this in the late 1970s, which surround names in the the “Pink Ballets”, Pinon affairs and Boas’ mistress and madam Fortunato “Tuna” Israel, who ran a European wide prostitution ring, which Boas utilized to reward potential business partners [Note: when VdB was in his minister positions, other countries knew that they had to include ASCO in their business deals if they wanted to work with the Belgians]. The Pinon dossier of the Pink Ballets affair is the most well known case, dealing with a divorce, that appeared to have been very sensitive, but was used by the “extreme-right as a blackmail dossier against the political institutions”. One example of this would later be when de Bonvoisin walked the Tour of Belgium with his blackmail dossier to “complicate and contaminate the important judicial investigation, trying to connect Albert Raes, the head of State Security, to the Pinon dossier. However, it was during the 1970s that Tuna Israel ran a prostitution “call-girl” network spanning several countries. By the late 1970s, Tuna was the director of Public Relations of Eurosystem Hospitalier. Her services (the call girls) were called in to serve Prince Albert II, his consorts and the Saudi princes during their business trips. Employees of Adnan Khashoggi, a business friend of VdB, were among the customers. Either the EHC or the EHS was a 51% daughter of Poudreries Reunies de Belgique (PRB), which is ultimately owned by Societe Generale de Belgique. By 1977, significant delays in the EHS-Saudi deal occur when the Mexican subcontractor of EHS went broke. In a case of mismanagement, while the EHS is barely in the possession of of 5 million franks of capital, the Saudi initiators cut payments, leading to the EHS going bankrupt in 1979, leaving the other eight consortium members to finish the project, and the maintenance of the hospitals going to British and American companies. Somehow, an order of the value of 100 billion franks went missing and no less than 8.5 billion franks having been payed for bribes “rashwa”, which was how the EHS consortium had been able to overcome British and American competition. Also, in 1977, Fortunato Israel’s prostitution network in Belgium was taken over by Lydia Montaricourt, and Israel burnt her address book, which Lydia had already copied and in which contained lists of the names of Israel’s clients. Afterwards, Israel would go on to work for ASCO of Boas. Victim-witness X1, would later testify about the ASCO factory, in Belgium, being a location where there was a room for child abuse and even the production of child pornography and snuff films. She named men as Michel Nihoul, Annie Bouty, Tony Van Den Bogaert, Michel Vander Elst, Baron de Bonvoisin, Paul Vanden Boeynants, Melchior Wathelet, Wilfried Martens and others ranging from the 1970s to 1980s period; more on this later.”
Returning to the fascist underground, in 1977, NATO and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) trained Paul Latinus was employed by PIO as an intelligence agent. Latinus received letters of recommendation from Vanden Boeynants and CEPIC directors, boosting his career. In 1977, Vanden Boeynants became the Chairman of the CEPIC, with de Bonvoisin as Treasurer. The next year, in 1978, while the Eurosystem Hospitalier deal was falling apart, Latinus joined FJ and became a leader within Group G. Later, on October 20, 1978, Vanden Boeynants became Prime Minister of Belgium for his second time, succeeding Tindemans. Controversies would arise in the late 1970s regarding his continuation of “paras” to support the Zaire dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in central Africa. But this was relatively minor compared what would later come out involved the previously mentioned NBD. By 1978, Fernand Beaurir became the head of the NBD, but Leon Francois and others were still involved. It would later come out that it had been known that the NBD had known about the smuggling of hash and cocaine in frozen meat trucks of the companies Congel and Boucheries Ghysels from Spain, through a depot in Mamer, Luxembourgh and into Belgium. It would become known that Francois and his righthand man Cammerman were always present at the Belgian border when a freezer truck was about to arrive. The Chairman and shareholder of Boucheries Ghysels, of which Congel was a subsidiary, was Prime Minister Paul Vanden Boeynants.
Even these drug trafficking allegations are not the worst part, as should be expected. Since 1978, Vanden Boeynants was a client of Lydia Montaricourt, the successor to Boas mistress Fortunato Israel. While Vanden Boeynants was second time Prime Minister of Belgium, Regina claimed that he abused her at Madame Cecile’s hotel-villa, in Knokke, sometime in February 1979. Regina was 10 years old giving birth for the first time to a daughter, named Cheyenne (who disappeared, only to who up nearly three years later at the ASCO factory, where she was brutally murdered). Afterward, Regina recalled becoming more tired with participating and started to resist orders, resulting in Vanden Boeynants or Nihoul hitting her to make her carry out commands. Regina described the event of giving birth to Cheyenne in here book:
“I crawled onto the bed … An hour or so later the first pains came… I felt so incredibly vulnerable and desperately wanted to have and adult person by my side. Then came the men, a baron, Pépère, two brothers one of them had a glass eye, and a guy dressed in police clothes. They watched me, forced me on the bed and when a pain came up Pépère forced himself inside of me. I was in total panic. It hurt terribly and I braced myself, which made everything a lot worse. I cried out of pain and nausea. I begged for mercy. But the worst of all was the fear. That choking feeling as if you’re slowly being tortured to death is indescribable. I hyperventilated every time one of them entered my vagina, and the pain grew stronger and spread through my entire body. I squeezed the baron’s arms very hard. He slapped me in the face, once, twice, three times. Totally unexpectedly the pains grew even stronger and I automatically started pushing. I screamed loudly, I was so scared and it hurt terribly. With all my strength I opposed the forces that took over my body. I cried, called my Mommy, but they just beat me. When the next pain came, one of the brothers put his hand in my vagina and moved it. I yelled… it’s impossible to describe but very traumatic. When the little head came I was so exhausted I couldn’t push anymore. I was so tired. But the pain forced me to and with the last bit of energy I had left in my body I pushed her into this world. This was my little memory of Canada, my Cheyenne.“
-(Regina’s Story, page 21)
In the X-dossiers, names are given:
“When the contractions started her grandmother made a phone call. The Lippens brothers [Counts Leopold and Maurice], [Paul] Vanden Boeynants and the assistant commissioner of Knokke arrived. [Baron] De Bonvoisin and [Michel] Vander Elst arrived thereafter… Vander Elst puts a knife on her throat while Bonvoisin rapes her… She must masturbate while Vander Elst makes a number of photos. Lippens rapes her with a razor blade. When the child exited de Bonvoisin beat her. Directly after X1 gave birth she was raped and sodomized. Her daughter disappeared six weeks later. She only saw her [daughter] at the factory again (PV 118.872).”
-(X-dossiers summary, PV 118.869)
1979-2001: Exposure and Protection
On 3 April 1979, Paul Vanden Boeynants was succeeded as Prime Minister of Belgium by CVP member Wilfried Martens, who appointed Vanden Boeynants as Deputy Prime Minister of Defense. However, Vanden Boeynants quickly resigned. This may have had something to do with the emerging scandals linked to his name and possibly the major shakeups within the “Cercle complex” all taking place around 1979.
The year of 1979 was when the Pinon affair, which never really became an affair, took place. Paul Vanden Boeynants was named as an attendee of parties at which underaged girls were abused. Other prominent people named included General Fernand Beaurir, Guy Mathot, Ado Blaton and Prince Albert II (Later King of the Belgians). While Vanden Boeynants became the chairman of the Parti Social Chretiens (PSC), in October 1979, the scandal that really broke out that year dealt with the drug trafficking accusations against the NBD.
In 1979, a BOB officer began reporting on corruption within the NBD and that top level officers were involved in drug trafficking themselves, linked to Vanden Boeynants’ Boucheries Ghysels and a subsidiary. Possibly because of the high profile nature of the case, nothing was done internally by NBD head General Beaurir and his good friend General Robert “Bob” Bernaert, who was head of the Gendarmerie’s Internal Affairs department and a member of the Marnixring. All hell broke loose after the BOB officer informed the Justice department and two chief investigators became Major Herman Vernaillen and BOB adjutant Guy Goffinon. On January 1980, General Francois of the NBD was arrested and a large scale investigation was mounted. While interrogating General Francois and his NBD associates, the two chief investigators were told that they could not touch their suspects, because they were protected by Paul Vanden Boeynants and Baron Benoît de Bonvoisin. On top of that, General Beaurir and other top Gendarmes began sabotaging the investigation. Additionally, CEPIC member Leon Finne had a list of names, including Paul Vanden Boeynants, Jose Desmarets, Jean Militis, Lt.-Gen. Vivario, Raymond Charles, General Fernand Beaurir, which he gave to Herman Vernaillen and claimed that these people were involved in attempt to destabilize Belgian state. Furthermore, around the year 1980, a lady named Miss Crockaert died in a traffic accident. In the Pinon file she had admitted to having been a co-organizer of the regular “pink ballets”, which were sex orgies at which minors are suspected to have attended). She also said that Prince Albert II attended these pink ballets, but only when children were present.
With all the scandals breaking out, it must have been decided that the PIO operation needed to disappear soon, or reform. In March 1980, Bougerol’s secretary Marie Therese Legon moved her job over to the European Institute of Management (EIM), a front for a private intelligence agency. Meanwhile, throughout 1980 and into 1981, an IT specialist of the Gendarmerie, Luc van den Daele, had been privately investigating, against the will of his superiors, the drug trafficking charges against the NBD. He had even told his colleagues that he knew the names of those involved in the drug trafficking. On March 13, 1981, van den Daele was gunned down in his neighborhood, his file cabinet was broken into and his files were stolen. To no surprise, his colleagues thought that he was assassinated. Also in March 1981, Paul Latinus was given permission from FJ head Dossogne to create Westland New Post (WNP), which would have been controlled by Bougerol, just as he had done with FJ. The only difference being that the EIM was doing what the PIO had done. Bougerol is believed to have been employed by EIM head Rene Mayerus, who would soon be succeeded by Douglas MacArthur II. Interestingly, on March 30, 1981, Legon’s trade activities expanded from having just private security and security advise to including antiterrorism. Then almost two months later, on May 19, a major blow to VdB’s and especially BdB’s operation occurred. A Belgian State Security memo was leaked to the press and exposed de Bonvoisin’s role in funding the FJ through his PDG company and CEPIC. This resulted in the disbanding of the CEPIC and the ending of de Bonvoisin’s public career. In June 1981, the previously mentioned Legon became secretary advisor of EIM. WIthout any issues, EIM and Legon acquired a security clearance of the industrial security section of the SGR. In July, 1981, the Front de la Jeunesse set fire to the headquarters of Pour magazine, which had revealed details about the internal structure of FJ and reportedly had information about the Pinon dossier. Clearly, despite the leaked memo, FJ was still active and the WNP had already been created, so what happened to Group G? On August 7, 1981, Douglas MacArthur II, former US ambassador to Belgium, became chairman of the EIM. Through all these contacts, EIM was able to obtain several important security contracts providing security for diplomatic conferences at the Egmont palace and Hertoginnedal. EIM also maintained contact with the US embassy in Brussels, with the purpose to acquire security contracts for American weapon depots in Belgium. While it is important to note the WNP and FJ connection to EIM, it is also important to note that EIM was owned by Unibra, which was controlled by friends of Vanden Boeynants and owned by Michel Relecom, a member of the Cercle des Nations. Also, the whereabouts of Group G would be an extremely important question as well, as will be noted.
In late 1981, Vernaillen and Goffinon received a tip that large quantities of drugs, hidden inside frozen meat, were smuggled into Belgium, involving Vanden Boeynants’ Boucheries Ghysels and Francois of the NBD. On October 12, Goffinon survived an assassination attempt. About one third of a bomb went off in his car while three others were driving it. Then fourteen days later Vernaillen seemed to have escaped an assassination as he was riding along the car of Gendarme Joris Vivelle. But several hours later Vernaillen and his wife survived an assassination attempt, although both badly shot up, on October 26. Evidence in the latter failed assassination attempt apparently strongly pointed to Paul Vanden Boeynants, Jean-Francois Buslik and Madani Bouhouche, the latter two suspected Group G members. Martial Lekeu would later claim that Group G, which had been planning for a destabilization coup since at the latest 1975, was responsible for both failed assassination attempts. Despite these indications, no arrests were made. So as if it was business as usual, Vanden Boeynants set up the Mediterranean Meat Company, around 1981. Interestingly, the company was located in Malta on an abandoned British military airport, sharing offices and accountants with ASCO-Malta, a branch of ASCO-Belgium owned by Roger Boas.
By early November 1981, Vanden Boeynants was publicly implicated, by the Gazet of Antwerpen, in a scheme in which his company Boucheries Ghysels was smuggling hash and cocaine in frozen meat from Spain to Belgium. The editorial office of the paper received threatening calls, but the story was out. In mid 1981, Vanden Boeynants contacted General Beaurir to inquire about the drug investigation into his company. Although the details of this conversation are not known (a closely-guarded secret), around this time Goffinon advised the Justice Department to arrest Paul Vanden Boeynants and charge him with drug trafficking. Interestingly, around the time in November 1981, the previously mentioned Jean-Michel Nihoul met Pau; Vanden Boeynants at PSC headquarters and discussed an aspect of the Centre Medical de l’Est affair, which was a scheme involving Nihoul and Annie Bouty. At some point, in 1981, Vanden Boeynants term as chairman of the PSC ended. Interestingly, de Bonvoisin attended the association Europa Christiana in the same month.
When Martial Lekeu was interrogated, he revealed some details an unsolved theft of fifteen Heckler and Koch machine guns from a Group Diana barracks, which happened in the night of December 31, 1981, in Etterbeek, Brussels. Lekeu claimed that this was the work of Group G. Interestingly, this event was closely linked to Madani Bouhouche, a suspected Group G member and Gang of Nijvel perpetrator. Lekeu would pin the assassination attempt on Goffinon and Vernaillen on Group G. Going into 1982, the Gang of Nijvel would really begin with the theft of a 12-gauge fowling shotgun from a store in Dinant, in March. This was followed by the theft of a car in May. In June, de Bonvoisin attended Le Cercle, a very important and secretive conference group with close links to intelligence. Then there was an armed robbery of a grocery store in Maubeuge, France, on August 14, resulting in two French police officers being seriously wounded. On September 14, the Gang of Nijvel robbed a weapons dealer in Wavre, resulting in the death of a police officer and two wounded.
The following month, in October 1982, Regina Louf would later claim that she had been taken at age of 12 by Tony van den Bogaert to Chateau des Amerois, at which Vanden Boeynants was present. VdB righthand de Bonvoisin was also there and dead serious about what they were doing, hunting children. De Bonvoisin picked out Regina, forced her to point out where the children were hiding and even forced her to shoot one girl dead. The event as described in the last article:
“In October 1982, Tony [Van Den Bogaert] took X1 to one of the hunts, which were no ordinary hunts on regular animal game. Tony drove her to a property, with which X1 was very familiar. She was driven from Gent to Dinant, south toward Bouillon and a little while longer until Tony drove through a big metal gate. The castle she described appears to have certainly been Chateau des Amerois, which is or was owned by the Solvay family and is surrounded by a large forest. As usual, the hunts took place in a park, which in this particular place had a large pond and rhododenron bushes. X1 counted ten men, one of them being “Joe”, who appears to have definitely been Baron Benoît de Bonvoisin, who stood separate from the group of the other men present. Other men apparently present included Paul Vanden Boeynants, 4 Gendarme officers, the woods keeper and likely those running security. There was a guard who held two Saint Hubert dogs under control. There were five girls between ten and sixteen years old, standing close together, behind whom were two guards, whose role was to prevent the girls from running away. One of the men shouted “Nos petits lapins sont prets !” (Our little rabbits are ready!). They all laughed, except Baron de Bonvoisin, who was dead serious, because he was there to kill. X1 decided to move away from the group of girls … When the men called the girls, they all reacted, but X1 stayed put and looked at de Bonvoisin, who looked at her calmly in evaluation. De Bonvoisin signed her over and wanted X1 to give him fellatio. When he had enough, he pushed X1 away, as if he wanted to save her for later. However, he then made her stay with him, after the girls ran out into the forest. X1 was made into an accomplice by BdB, who made her find the girls and point out where they were hiding. This would have been easier to do as day light was still somewhat present. As each girl was caught, they had to take off a piece of clothing and once they didn’t have anymore clothing, the men started aiming. At some point, BdB was behind X1 and readied his rifle, then suddenly put it in her hands… and forced X1 to pull the trigger[killing another girl]. Afterwards, X1 was raped until the men lost interest.”
Meanwhile, in December 23, the Gang robbed a restaurant and killed the owner. This was followed in January by two car thefts. The next month, the Gang robbed a supermarket, the first of about four more that year. In 1983, the Gang robbed a few restaurants and shop and textile factory. Over the year several people were murdered. On September 17, the couple Elise Dewit and Jacques Fourez, both former CEPIC members, were murdered at a gas station by the Gang. Another one of those murdered, which appeared to be one of the targeted assassinations was the murder of former CEPIC member Jacques van Camp, the owner of Les trois Canards, a pub that Vanden Boeynants used fo attend. Dewit and Fourez were reportedly close to van Camp, all three of whom were reportedly involved in organizing “pink ballets”. At some point in 1983, Madani Bouhouche and Robert “Bob” Beyer claimed to have tried to sell sensitive information on prominent politicians stolen from a database to two politicians, VDB and Philippe Moureaux. Later, when questioned about this, VDB would not remember, but Moureaux confirmed that he had declined the offer
After the crimes of 1983, the Gang of Nijvel disappeared through 1984. This may have had something to do with the suspicious death of Paul Latinus on April 24, 1984. The suicide of Latinus would result in the disbanding of the WNP, of which several members suspected that he had been assassinated. On September 27, 1985, the Gang of Nijvel reappeared as madmen. They robbed a Delhaize supermarket, killing three and wounding two. Almost 30 minutes later, they robbed a second Delhaize supermarket, killing five and wounding one. Among those killed that night was the previously mentioned Leon Finne, former CEPIC member reportedly involved in financing the “pink ballets”. The mad killers struck again for the last time on November 9, 1985. The Gang of Nijvel robbed a Delhaize supermarket in Aalst, while security by police had been increased as a result of the two robberies in September. At the last robbery, the mad killers murdered eight people and wounded several others, including a young girl and an associate of Finne, Jan Palsterman. The Gang of Nijvel made a narrow escape, but was never seen again and their crimes remain unsolved to this day. Over the unfolding months, the investigation was obstructed by key elements, such as by Jean Depretre.
While the Gang of Nijvel “investigation” was underway, a curious event occurred, which was described in the previous article thus:
“It occurred between the time December 1985 to March 1986 that adjutant Guy Dussart (who testified about this on November 29, 1989, before a closed session of the parliamentary investigative committee in Belgium) of the BOB in Waverse was approached by two senior high nobility figures, who belonged to Opus Dei. The two noble Opusians explained to Dussart that at least 9 important members of Opus Dei together with several officers and generals of the gendarmerie and army were working to destabilize Belgium in order to transfer all power to King Baudouin. Dussart mentioned the same names as Herman Vernaillen (and Leon Finne), including General Beaurir and Paul Vanden Boeynants, who both reportedly belonged to Opus Dei. Furthermore, Dussart claimed some of the same figures involved in the aborted 1973 coup were involved in the coup prepared in the 1980s. Several meetings of the conspirators would have taken place at the Opus Dei owned Castle Dongelberg, a location pointed out by X2.”
On June 25, 1986, the seemingly untouchable Paul Vanden Boeynants was convicted for more than 100 counts of tax evasion and forgery of documents from 1967-1982, in which he personally made $4.4 million. VDB was sentenced to a three-year suspended jail term and fine of $13,600. Under these circumstances, Vanden Boeynants appeared in a dossier submitted by Franz Balfroid and Gerard Bihay dealing with Opus Dei. Although Balfroid and Bihay’s investigation would be obstructed, their dossier provides incredibly key information. VDB’s close friend Baron Benoit de Bonvoisin appeared in the dossier as a key linkman. De Bonvoisin was also convicted to a year in prison involving a bankruptcy, but he was later acquitted.
Despite being on a suspended sentence, according to Nathalie Waeterschoot, she saw Vanden Boeynants with some women at the Etterbeek nightclub The Dolo, which was founded in 1987 by Michel Forgeot and Dolores Bara. Another witness, who saw Vanden Boeynants at The Dolo with Michel Nihoul, was the husband of Nathalie Perignon.
Im Mid-January to mid-February 1989, a major scandal broke out when Vanden Boeynants was kidnapped, apparently by the “Socialist Revolutionary Brigade”. But, later it turned out to be Patrick Haemers and his gang. At the time VDB was kidnapped, he was being investigated for having received kickbacks from 1972-1979. In May, 1989, Vernaillen supplied the head of the investigating committee, Andre Bourgeois, with the list of name he had gotten from Finne regarding individuals involved back in 1980 to destabilize the Belgian state and bring in a more hard-right government. It was probably around June to August when the son of the previously mentioned Joris Vivelle was kidnapped in southern France and found back murdered and badly mutilated. However, the most prominent kidnapping around Belgium was that of VDB, an event described in the article about Vander Elst:
“On January 14, 1989, Paul Vanden Boeynants was kidnapped by members of the Haemers gang in a garage of his home in Brussels. Initially, it was reported that VDB was kidnapped by the “Socialist Revolutionary Brigate”, which was unknown to general people, and the “Fighting Communist Cells”. Three days later, on January 17, the gang published a note on the leading Brussels newspaper Le Soir, demanding a ransom of 30 million Belgian francs. After an undisclosed ransom, VdB was released a month later on February 13. According to a Haemers gang police report, between mid January ‘89 and pre-February 13, there was contact between the Haemers family (Achille, Lilis and Bobonne) and Patrick Haemers, Denise Tyack and Kevin. There was a meeting between them that took place somewhere in a chateau outside Paris, possibly Qarters. During a conversation between Patrick and his father Achille, Patrick admitted that he was responsible for the kidnapping of VDB. Patrick told his father that he was part of an “organization” and was well compensated for his services. Sense Patrick Haemers was a part of “the organization” he and his gang didn’t have to worry about anything and the rent at his apartments would be covered. The organization consisted of influential people and had its own doctors and lawyers. The Haemers reports says “They would have dangerous political ideas” and Patrick described them as “the dangerous mad men.” The Haemers gang went on to say that Patrick’s contact between him and the “organization” was the lawyer Michel Vander Elst and that Patrick felt totally protected by this organization. According to the informant, Vanden Boeynants had ties to this organization, and his kidnapping may have been staged. Patrick’s brother, Eric Haemers, reportedly knew more about this organization, but he was afraid to speak about it. Soon after VdB’s release, the members of the Haemers gang, which was headed by Achille Haemers’ son Patrick, including Basjri Basjrama, Marc Van Dam, Philippe Lacroix and Denise Tyack, were all arrested.
“In March 1989, Michel Vander Elst, as the lawyer of Patrick Haemers, who was being sought as the alleged leader of a gang responsible, was arrested on suspicions that he masterminded the abduction of Paul Vanden Boeynants. Vander Elst was placed under arrest after 9 hours of questioning. He was questioned on suspicions of involvement with the kidnapping of VDB, but also on accusations of bribery and forgery. A spokesman charged that Vander Elst had seen some of the suspected kidnappers after they had rented a villa in the northern French resort Le Touquet, where VDB was held up for a month. The spokesman also said that Vander Elst had received calls from public booths in Le Touquet. Vander Elst was sentenced to 8 yers in jail for having provided false alibis for members of the Haemers gang, after they kidnapped VdB.
Clearly the kidnapping was a very suspicious event. But this seemed to be bigger news than what came out in early 1990. In February 1990, Maud Sarr named VdB, Leon Francois of the NBD, Fernand Beaurir and others as being involved in a prostitution network in which minors were used for blackmail high officials. While the gang commission would look into the Fortuna Israel and Lydia Montaricourt dossiers, this didn’t seem to change anything. Even when the X-dossiers came out, that got covered up.
In the early 1990s, Guy Einsweiller/Eschweiler testified in 1996, that he remembered Nihoul’s fish trade and during a deal he saw Jean-Paul Dumont drinking a glass with Nihoul. Sometimes he saw Nihoul at the restaurant Mayflower in Koekelberg. He also testified that he regularly saw Dumont and Paul Vanden Boeynantsin the private area of the fish and crustacean enterprise that he exploited. This is very interesting, because other witnesses have claimed that Nihoul knew VDB as far back as 1974. Clearly, they maintained contact. It was even said by Vanden Boeynants private driver that Nihoul was de Bonvoisin’s righthand man. According to Jozef de Poorter, head of the VDK construction company, his former boss Arthur Vande Kerkhove was a big fan of orgies and attended such events with Vanden Boeynants and Michel Nihoul.
Despite all the scandals, Vanden Boeynants’ criminal record was erased in the year 1992. This was likely around the time he made a political rehabilitation. Meanwhile, during the time Patrick Haemers was in jail, his lawyer Etienne Delhuvenne was already worried that he might be killed, by “the organization” he worked for. On May 14, 1993, Patrick Haemers apparently committed suicide by hanging himself with a radio cord in his jail cell. Two of his accomplices had managed to make a short escape from the St. Gilles prison, but Haemers wrote a suicide note. Despite this apparent fact, Patrick’s death has still been viewed with suspicion, and perhaps reasonably so. By 1994, VDB’s wife died and buried in the cemetery of Brussels. The following year, in 1995, Vanden Boeynants finally decided to leave politics and burnt his private archives.
In the year of 1996, the Dutroux affair broke out in Belgium. On August 13, Dutroux and his two closest accomplices were arrested. Soon thereafter, Michel Nihoul was arrested on August 16, which was on public television. On the same day, two young girls, Sabine and Laetitia, were discovered in a small dungeon beneath the main home of Dutroux. On August 17, bodies of two even younger girls were found, eight year old Julie and Melissa, along with the accomplice Dutroux murdered, Bernard Weinstein. On August 19, Lelievre began telling about Dutroux’s talk of kidnapping girls for order. One year later, after apparent efforts to thwart the Dutroux investigation and its X-dossiers, Vanden Boeynants had a day full of praise. On August 20, 1997, Vanden Boeynants received many honors, including the Order of Leopold II, Order of St. Michael and St. George, Order of Orange Nassaue and the Vatican’s Order of Sylvester,
August 20, 1997, received many honors by the Order of Leopold II, Order of St. Michael and St. George, Order of Orange Nassaue and the Vatican’s Order of Pius and St. Sylvester, and many others. Among these other honors he acquired over his life were the Order of Leopold, Order of the Oak Crown Luxembourg, Order of the Southern Cross Brazil, Order of Merit Austria, Order of Merit Cameroon, Order of the White Rose Finland, Order of the Republic of Tunisa, Order of San Carlos Colombia, Order of Merit Nigeria, Order of the Polar Star Sweden, Order of Merit Italy, Leopold Order of Zaire and Grand Officer Legion of Honor France. As can be seen, he had many distinguished accomplishments.
Around this time, Vanden Boeynants owned a weekly magazine Pan, which was kind of like the continuation of CEPIC/PIO outfit’s propaganda. At the time the X-dossier investigation was being totally obstructed and dismantled. On August 21, 1997, VDB’s weekly magazine Pan joyously reported the sacking of the head investigator and interrogator of X1 Patrick De Baets and his team. But oddly, this was published three days before they were even notified of this. It was also around this time that de Bonvoisin, who had been interfering with the case for over a year, began a slander campaign against De Baets and his team. After this point, nothing else is really known by this author about the latter years in the life of Paul Vanden Boeynants. It is likely that around this time he featured in a number of documentaries, in which he undoubtedly defended his legacy. Over this period there were still a number of suspicious deaths and the completely obstructed Dutroux investigation continued. On January 9, 2001, Vanden Boeynants died at 81 years old in Aalst, Belgium. Strangely, this was the area in which the Gang of Nijvel made the last murderous robbery. After this point, the Dutroux trial would finally come in 2004. After a jury decided Nihoul was guilty of involvement, it was not unanimous, so the judges stepped in and declared Nihoul innocent of any crimes related to the kidnapping of Dutroux. Even to this day, in 2020, Dutroux claims there is something wider to his case. While there are four years left in the current Gang of Nijvel investigation, suspects related to the Front de la Jeunesse, Westland New Post and Diana Group of the Gendarmerie are still being sought, but always in vain. Madani Bouhouche would die in a bizarre accident in 2004 and Jean Bultot’s connection hasn’t seemed to go anywhere. Maybe the full story could be more revealed in later years, but it is more than likely that the most shocking secrets will remain unknown. Nonetheless, enough answers are available to have an idea of where we should probably be looking for answers.
It is always easy to begin an investigation with a person’s connections that have the earliest or closest links. In this case, the family of Paul Vanden Boeynants will be quickly analyzed. Belgium was a country of Catholics and so his parents, Paul Henri Vanden Boeynants and Jeanne Lenssens, were Roman Catholics from the Mechelen, Antwerp area. Although his parents were from Mechelen, Paul was born in Forest, southwest of Mechelen. Curiously, a paint, symbolist and occultist named Jean Delville lived in Forest at some point. Delville was a Theosophist and was influenced by Eliphas Levi and Saint-Yves d’Alveydre. This will be an interesting coincidence when Synarche is discussed later on. Interestingly, Paul Vanden Boeynants attended the Saint-Michel College of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Anyway, the second main commonality Paul’s parents had was their background in butchery, the main business of Henri and their history in the Mechelen, Antwerp area. It is interesting to not the coincidence that Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was brought up in Mechelen until the age of 17. The origin of the Beethoven family goes back to Mechelen. Returning to Paul, following in his father’s footsteps, after going to school, Paul went into the business of butchery working under his father as an apprentice butcher. Later on he got married to Lucienne Deurinck, a daughter of a butcher. Later on, victim-witness Anneke Lucas would testify that she was supposed to be murdered at the age of 12 on a butchers bloc located in the house of Paul Vanden Boeynants in 1974. Another victim-witness, X3, testified how Vanden Boeynants would have utilized his butchery skills in heinous child abuse, torture and murder events in the 1950s-early 1960s involving the top of Belgian royalty and prominent figures in politics and business. More on these sordid accusations later, but suffice to say, there is a continuity with Vanden Boeynants’s early years and what he would do later on. A major scandal would break out about drug trafficking involving VdB’s Boucheries Ghysels meat company. One may wonder how all these nefarious activities has anything to do with being Catholic. In 1981, VdB founded the Mediterranean Meat Company, which was located close to an ASCO branch of Malta.
In the early days, Paul Vanden Boeynants was a follower of the Rex movement and inspired by its founder was the Jesuit educated Leon Degrelle. In 1935, Degrelle founded the Rex movement as a branch of the Catholic Party. The name Rex was derived from a Roman Catholic journal and publishing company called Christus Rexus, which Degrelle was involved in. It advocated Belgian unitarism and royalism. By 1986, Rex became an opposition party against the Catholic Party. Although it didn’t gain much traction outside Wallonia and Brussels, it reach a height in the 1936 election with 21 deputies and 12 senators elected. In 1937, Degrelle ran against Prime Minister Paul van Zeeland of the Catholic Party, to whom he lost. After this point the Rex movement went into decline. Back then there had been fears of a coup plot, but nothing ever happened. Vanden Boeynants was clearly interested in the current events at the time, going into WWII, despite a conflict with his father he maintained interested in Rex and other fascist and Nazi groups. In 1940, Vanden Boeynants was captured on the eastern Russian front and released about two years after. At some point, Degrelle had been subsidized be Benito Mussolini and turned Rex into a fascist movement. Initially, Degrelle was ignored by Hitler and the political landscape divided between Rex and the Flemish Nationalists, with whom VdB would later seek out contact. In response, Degrelle revamped his Rex movement into a more Nazi like organization, including an enforcement arm. In 1941, Degrelle joined the Russian front of the Nazis as a private, letting Matthys take over Rex. Degrelle gained great respect as a warrior in the eastern front by 1942. Afterward, Degrelle would meet with Heinrich Himmler and joined the SS. Hitler reportedly once said:
“If I should have a son, I would like him to be like Leon[ Degrelle].”
Degrelle would have led Rex into Nazi collaboration during their occupation of Belgium. The leaders of Rex while Degrelle was busy working with the Nazis from 1941 to 1944 were Victor Matthys and Louis Collard. After Belgium was liberated, Rex was banned and Degrelle was sentenced to death, which he managed escaped by fleeing to Spain with the protection of Franco. Interestingly, Degrelle would later appear decades later in a 1986 Belgian Gendarme dossier on Opus Dei. It stated that Degrelle was a top leader of the Nazi movement in Europe; that he was in contact with the Nazi Dr. Jozef Mengele, who was a refugee in Brazil in the Mato Grosso province and a Nazi leader in South America and worldwide; that Degrelle was in collaboration with Stefano Della Chiaie of Aginter Presse, Yves Guerin-Serac and the P2 lodge in Italy. The dossier stated that Degrelled the founder of the Black Orchestra, a subversive, extreme-right organization. The dossier claimed that “Orchestra Noir” was behind the Bologna, Italy, bombing in 1980.
In the year 1948, Vanden Boeynants got involved in politics. He decided to join the successor of the Catholic Party, the Parti Social Chretiens (PSC), which was in alliance with the CVP. However, before Vanden Boeynants joined the Belgian Parliament in 1949, he had attended, in November 1948, in Italy, the second conference of the Union of European Federalists (PEU), which was the most prominent group within the European Movement, which in turn came out of The Hague Congress of Jozef Retinger. In May 1948, the Hague Congress was held. It was founded by Jozef Retinger, who took the position as secretary general, with Winston Churchill as chair. There were several important participants in The Hague Congress, which included Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard of Orange, Paul van Zeeland, Jean Monnet, Alcide de Gasperi and Paul-Henri Spaak. These individuals have already been discussed in the previous article. The European Movement was founded in October 1948, by Retinger and Churchill and came to include many prominent individuals, including several lords and the peculiar PSC member (later multiple time PSC President) Charles-Fernand Nothomb. Interestingly, Retinger would be the founder of the Bilderberg Group in the early 1950s. Again Retinger became secretary general and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands became the honorary chairman. Among the figures involved with the founding of Bilderberg include Paul van Zeeland, Alcide de Gasperi and Pierre de Bonvoisin, who had met Paul Vanden Boeynants through their involvement with the UEF. Van Zeeland and Monnet would also attend Le Cercle, a group set up by Antoine Pinay and patron-ed by Otto von Habsburg. Interestingly, Vanden Boeynants would become very close to the son of Pierre de Bonvoisin, Benoit, who would later attend Le Cercle. One of those in attendance at the first Bilderberg Group conference was David Rockefeller, who would later go on to attend Le Cercle for some time, on occasions with Henry Kissinger. As can be seen here, Vanden Boeynants had several Liberal establishment and left connections. But, as can be seen with VdB’s early affiliation with Rex (Degrelle) and the Flemish nationalists, he clearly had some heavy fascist tendencies. Nonetheless, after Vanden Boeynants and Jo Gerard set up the Comite for the Revival of the PSC, he became a top player. From 1961 to 1966, Vanden Boeynants was the President of the PSC/CVP. By the year 1972, the PSC and CVP had split and Vanden Boeynants founded the Centre Politique des Independants et des Cadres Chretiens (CEPIC), whcih was a continuation of the Mouvment des Independants et des Cadres (MIC), which VdB founded back in 1955, as an effort to neutralize the leftist/labour wing with the PSC. Back then, VdB was involved in pushing a Red Scare campaign, which mirrored that of Senator Joseph McCarthy in the USA. This would be a recurring theme later on in Belgium with the stories of coup plots.
Back in 1971, Vanden Boeynants played a key role in the founding of Nouvel Europe Magazine (NEM), which was published by de Bonvoisins CIDEP company and under the editorship of Emile Lecerf published a series of articles talking about a coup d’etat. The year of 1972 was crucial for the Vanden Boeynants gang, In that year (1972), Vanden Boeynants became the Belgian Minister of Defense and some would even refer to him as the Belgian Giulio Andreotti At some point, in 1972, a number of NEM-clubs began to be organized where fascist militants could meet with each other and discuss their ideas for a coup. It also coincides with a report that, in 1972, planning began to destabilize Belgium in order to bring in a stronger government that could more effectively counter “KGB subversion” of labour unions and left-wing political parties. It is not a stretch to automatically suspect Vanden Boeynants as being involved in this earlier coup plot report. The MIC that VdB founded in 1955 was anti-communist, and so was its predecessor, the CEPIC. But, even before then VdB was strongly anti-Communist, as may have been the case with the 1951 inauguration of King Baudouin when someone from the Communist Party shouted “Vive la Republique’, which sent VdB into furious rage. Everyone seemed to have suspected it was the communist leader Julien Lahaut, who ended up being murdered by two unknown persons, one of whom was discovered to be a certain “Adolphe”, part of the Belgian Stay-Behind Network. As can be seen later on with the facts of the 1970s and 1980s, VdB was very much closely connected to this milieux with his CEPIC group at the center, surrounded in reported coup plots.
Following the events of 1972, in the subsequent year it has been reported that an aborted 1973 coup plot called “l”Ordre Blue” took place. This is supposed to have involved Vanden Boeynants, de Bonvoisin, Bougerol and links to the sniffer planes scandal. In 1973, fascists from the NEM clubs founded the Front de la Jeunesse (FJ), which became headed by Francis Dossogne and funded by de Bonvoisin through his PDG company and CEPIC. De Bonvoisin would also be involved in the founding of the Parti de Fources Nouvelles, which was the political front of FJ and held its first conference at CEPIC HQs. Furthermore, de Bonvoisin was have a meeting of european fascists meet at his castle. Such a meeting was organized by Emile Lecerf and attended by Dossogne, representatives of the MSI from Italy, French branch of the Parti des Forces Nouvelles, the National Front from Britain, Fuerza Nueva from Spain and Ordine Nouvo from Italy. It was in 1974 that Vanden Boeynants, de Bonvoisin and General Roman would have founded the Public Information Office (PIO), which became headed by Lt.-Gen. Jean-Marie Bougerol, a member of SDRA8. Interestingly, the civil branch of the PIO would be located in a building connected to the headquarters of the CEPIC. Also located in the building were de Bonvoisin’s PDG company, at one point the PEU’s Belgian branch MAUE and the Comite Hongrie. From the early 1970s to 1981, this was a major nexus point of Vanden Boeynants operations. As can be seen there are connections to Operation Gladio and the CIA.
Within the PIO framework Bougerol had built a parallel intelligence-action network for counterinformation and intelligence research: the Miller group, which acted as real undercover teams. The PIO may have had something to do with Bougerol’s counterinsurgency training by the US, who would have trained other PIO personnel. Consisting of two branches, the military section has to infiltrate and use or influence organizations that would favor their military agenda. The civilian branch was located in the aforementioned building and it was here that de Bonvoisin helped run the daily operations and de Kerchove d’Ousselghem helped with the political direction and both were Vanden Boeynants main channels to the PIO. Interestingly, Bougerol and de Bonvoisin attended the XXV International Congress of the CEDI, which was founded by Otto von Habsbrug. in 1976. Several other key individuals were present at the XXV International Congress including Jean-Eugene Violet, Antoine Pinay, Florimond Damman, Bernard Mercier, PIO contact Robert Moss, Jacques Jonet, Brian Crozier, Alfredo Sanchez Bella, Ernest Tottosy, Vittorio Pons, Julien Amery, Yves-Marc Dubois, Count Hans Huyn, Carlo Pesenti II, Paul Vankerkhoven and others. Many of these men were attendees of Le Cercle and members of the AESP, of which Vanden Boeynants was also a member. What is also interesting is that many of these men appeared in an Opus Dei dossier. Another major nexus point was the Cercle des Nations, which Vankerkoven, Vanden Boeynants and others set up in 1969. The members of this private club have connections all over the place to the scandals of interest to this investigation. From the CEPIC, to Opus Dei, the Gang of Nijvel, the Dutroux X-dossiers, the ATLAS dossiers, the pink-ballets/Pinon affairs, the Eurosystem Hospitalier deal, etc. Many members have been accused of or linked to child abuse networks as well.
Among the members of the Cercle des Nations connected to the Eurosystem Hospitalier deal in Saudi Arabia, PDG and Vanden Boeynants were Ado Blaton, Charly De Pauw and Roger Boas. Closely associated with these people was another Cercle des Nations member Baron Aldo Vastapane, a close friend of VdB going back to the early 1950s. VdB had gotten involved with the circles of these concrete barons and was involved with the World Expo 58, which got Vastapane a contract at the Zaventem airport. This group would also be involved with the building of the World Trade Organization in Belgium and Parc Savoy, where the Cercle des Nations would be located. VdB was a prominent member of the WTOA, which would have involved numerous individuals accused of child abuse, mostly from Belgium, but also one from Britain and two from France, over the following decades. Vastapane was a director the the Banque Bruxelles Lambert and had been good friends with De Pauw, Count Maurice Lippens [accused by X1], Albert Frere and Mobutu Sese Seko(whom was supported by VdB). There have even been rumors that Vastapane was the real father of Prince Laurent, the youngest son of King Albert II and Queen Paola. Although, Vastapane considers this a lie. It is interesting nonetheless that De Pauw and Vanden Boeynants would be named as central perpetrators in the heinous child abuse and murder network witnessed by X3, who also named Charles-Fernand Nothomb, then Prince Albert II and King Baudouin, in the 1950s to early 1960s period. Vastapane, De Pauw, Guy Mathot, Prince Albert II and Vanden Boeynants would be named in the Pinon dossier (as well by Miss Crockaert, who died under suspicious circumstances), which also involved Fernand Beaurir and the call girl network of Fortunato “Tania/Tuna” Israel, the mistress of Roger Boas. Vastapane would even be accused by Count Yann de Meeus d’Argenteuil, whos testimony relates to the X-dossiers. At the ASCO factory of Boas, victim-witness X1 would testify that there was a room for child abuse, pornography and even the production of snuff films, located within the factory premises. The ASCO factory was attended for the purpose of child abuse by many individuals as Vanden Boeynants, de Bonvoisin, Nihoul, Tony Van Den Bogaert, Vander Elst, Melchior Wathelet and even Wilfried Martens. X1 even named a WNP member and a Group G/Gang of Nijvel suspect Madani Bouhouche as someone who raped her and also drove her to the factory. She also named VdB’s private driver as someone who had driven her to similar locations and a close Bouhouche and de Bonvoisin associate Christian Amory as someone who drove her to these types of locations. Another victim-witness, X2, saw Bouhouche at the Dolo talking to Bil. Bouhouche is a suspect in the murder of Juan Mendez, who claimed that the nightclub Le Mirano was the key to solving the Gang of Nijvel case. Interestingly, X2 saw Bouhouche at Le Mirano, where Nihoul was a known customer and claimed that then Prince Albert II was filmed raping a 16 year old girl. Bouhouche was also an attendee of the Jonathan Club of Pepe Reijcke, a friend of Nihoul. The club was attended by people from the Front de la Jeunesse, a primary Gang of Nijvel suspect, Jean Bultot, and Frans Reyniers, who has been involved in covering up all of these scandals we have been talking about, yet has been accused himself as being involved in them at the same time. Such an example would be Jean Gol, an attendee of the Dolo and spotted by X2 at a meeting attended by Nihoul, Bouhouche’s wife, Vanden Boeynants and others. Gol would have been held bent on claiming the Gang of Nijvel was just organized crime ad had no political or far right implications whatsoever. Bouhouche even had a background with the NBD, which was implicated in being complicit with drug trafficking carried out by meat companies owned by Vanden Boeynants, Boucheries Ghyses and Congel. Group G suspect Leon Francois, also accused in Pink Ballets, was implicated in the scandal. On top of that, according to Martial Lekeu, Group G was behind failed assassination attempts on the two main investigators of the VDB gang, Goffinon and Vernaillen, from the drug trafficking to the reported coup plots.
It is odd that the implication of Vanden Boeynants in drug trafficking dealt with a meat company of his, which makes sense with his background in butchery. But oddly, a more recent victim-witness, Anneke Lucas, has come out and claimed that in 1974, she was supposed to be killed at the age of 12 by Nihoul, in a butcher room located inside the house of Vanden Boeynants (the apparent boss of this Belgian network). However, Patrick Haemers intervened, saving her life, but becoming a pawn of Vanden Boeynants, whom Haemers “kidnapped” in 1989. The time in which Anneke claims to have been in the network coincides with the time X1 was brought into the Network through her parents and maternal grandmother, Madam Cecile Beernaert, who ran two brothels for Nazis during the WWII occupation of Belgium. X1 claimed that Vanden Boeynants was one of her earliest abusers at Madame Cecile’s. In 1979, she was pregnant and abused during giving birth by the Lippens brothers, Vanden Boeynants, de Bonvoisin and Michel Vander Elst. Interestingly, Vander Elst would be a client of Les Atrebates and The Dolo and according to X1, he was close to Nihoul, Tony Van Den Bogaert and even Marc Dutroux and his associate Bernard Weinstein. Another fact is that Anneke Lucas named Patrick Haemers and Achille Haemers as having been involved in the network of Vanden Boeynants. Achille Haemers and Patrick knew Nihoul and Achille was a client of The Dolo. Patrick was a customer of Le Mirano as well and at all of these clubs, there were stories about child abuse going on. Patrick Haemers even claimed to his father that he kidnapped VdB for an “organization”, of which Michel Vander Elst was his contact. It was also reported that VdB had connections to “the organization”. Michel Vander Elst later turned out as being involved in the “Nebula” of Cercle des Nations members Felix Przdeborski, which was exposed in the ATLAS dossier. In the ATLAS dossier, Vanden Boeynants appeared as one of the persons involved. Links to VdB were also mentioned in the dossier, such as the Caisse Privee bank, set up by the d’Ursel family and had clients as VdB, De Pauw and the Haemers gang. Vanden Boeynants was mentioned, along with Roger Boas, as one of this who used the National Republic bank of 1001 Club member Edmond Safra(appeared in Epstein black book and was friends with Robert Maxwell, father of Ghislaine). The link in the file of ASCO to the Nebula and the whole Iran Contra scandal, mentions Vanden Boeynants’ name, Roger Boas and others as having been involved in arms trafficking for Heroin involving Przedborski. This is interesting in the light of Fortunato Israel and her successor Lydia Montaricourt in Belgium. It is apparent that on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean was the Franklin, Craig Spence and Finders affairs, which were also linked to Iran Contra.
The close connection of Vanden Boeynants to Opus Dei and reports of Satanic Ritual Abuse are also a question that needs mentioning. According to Anneke Lucas, she had been sent to Switzerland as a kind of gift to an American, she has not named. Lucas was sent with a boy, whom was murdered in a Satanic ritual sacrifice. This American was close to Epstein, which is interesting considering that Epstein worked in the 1980s for a 9/11 suspect Adnan Khashoggi, who knew Vanden Boeynants and had clients of Fortunato Israel in the 1970s. The American was also a financier of a Nazi German doctor, who ran a facility that trained, conditioned and mind controlled infants and toddlers to becomes prostitutes to be used in blackmail and prostitution networks. Anneke claims to have been taken here and mind controlled by the Nazi Doctor and Vanden Boeynants, when she was around 12.
In the early 1970s period and with a background with the DIA, Paul Latinus would be recruited as an intelligence agent for the Public Information Office (PIO). He was recommended everywhere by the CEPIC. But, he joined the Front de la Jeunesse, which was controlled by PIO head Bougerol, and he became a leader of the subversive Group G within FJ, which was also led by FJ head Dossogne. Before Latinus committed suicide under suspicious circumstances, he had threatened to reveal the true extent of the Pinon dossier, information about which he may have gotten from NEM Editor Emile Lecerf. The FJ (and possibly WNP and VMO) even burned down the building of Pour magazine, which had revealed information about FJ and had been planning to run a story on the Pinon dossier. But it was the Gang of Nijvel that executed former members of the CEPIC, who were reportedly involved in organizing “pink ballets”. One odd coincidence is that the Gang of Nijvel last struck in Aalst, the place where VdB would pass away in early January 2001. Already in the early 1980s, the PIO had merged with an older front organization called the European Institute of Management (WIM), behind which a private intelligence operation was hidden and could still exist today. At the time that the EIM was taking over the operations of the PIO, it was headed by Rene Mayerus, who is believed to have recruited Bougerol into the EIM, which would have controlled the WNP. By the time of the initial strikes of the Gang of Nijvel, the EIM became headed by Douglas MacArthur II. An important note here is that the EIM was owned by a group called Unibra, which at the time was owned by Cercle des Nations and 1001 Club member Michel Relecom. Clearly, the top of the EIM was close to VdB. Of course, this has all been covered up over the decades. VdB would be cleared and recieved many honors, which overlap with many suspects. The Gang of Nijvel remains an unsolved case and the Dutroux X-dossiers were covered up. Days before De Baets and his team were sacked from the case, VdB’s magazine Pan joyously reported on it, before they were even notified.
This article could be two times longer, not including notes. It is always a work in progress, but the connections are so numerous to go over and to repeat facts stated in previous articles makes it difficult to determine which information and trails should be stated and which should be left for other articles. One can rest assured that this article is by no means complete and will be certainly updated going into the future.
At this point, Conspiracy Dossiers began with an investigation in Marc Dutroux, which has led to this investigation of Paul Vanden Boeynants. From Dutroux we went straight to Nihoul, Tony Van Den Bogaert and Michel Vander Elst, all connected to Vanden Boeynants; and that’s not all of it! From this point on the article will likely take more focus on related scandals and organizations. Biographies will certainly continue to be important to this website. But current investigations are definitely aiming at certain organizations and scandals that need more exposure.